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Journal of cellular biochemistry

ROS-Induced Nuclear Translocation of Calpain-2 Facilitates Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Tail-Suspended Rats.


PMID 25820554

Abstract

Isoproterenol (ISO) induced nuclear translocation of calpain-2 which further increased susceptibility of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in tail-suspended rats. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, the results showed that ISO (10 nM) significantly elevated NADPH oxidases (NOXs) activity and NOXs-derived ROS productions which induced nuclear translocation of calpain-2 in cardiomyocytes of tail-suspended rats. In contrast, the inhibition of NADPH oxidase or cleavage of ROS not only reduced ROS productions, but also resisted nuclear translocation of calpain-2 and decreased ISO-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocyte in tail-suspended rats. ISO also increased the constitutive binding between calpain-2 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δB (CaMK II δB) in nuclei, concomitant with the promotion of CaMK II δB degradation and subsequent down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax protein in tail-suspended rat cardiomyocytes. These effects of ISO on cardiomyocytes were abolished by a calpain inhibitor PD150606. Inhibition of calpain significantly reduced ISO-induced loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, as well as the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In summary, the above results suggest that ISO increased NOXs-derived ROS which activated nuclear translocation of calpain-2, subsequently nuclear calpain-2 degraded CaMK II δB which reduced the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, and finally the mitochondria apoptosis pathway was triggered in tail-suspended rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, calpain-2 may represent a potentially therapeutic target for prevention of oxidative stress-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis.