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Journal of pharmaceutical sciences

Impact of Luminal Fluid Volume on the Drug Absorption After Oral Administration: Analysis Based on In Vivo Drug Concentration-Time Profile in the Gastrointestinal Tract.


PMID 25821198

Abstract

The objective of this study is to clarify the influence of fluid volume in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the oral drug absorption. In vivo rat luminal concentrations of FITC-dextran (FD-4), a nonabsorbable marker, and drugs (metoprolol and atenolol) after oral coadministration as solutions with different osmolarity were determined by direct sampling of residual water in each segment of the GI tract. The luminal FD-4 concentration after oral administration as hyposmotic solution was significantly higher than that after administration as isosmotic or hyperosmotic solution. As the change in FD-4 concentration reflects the change in the volume of luminal fluid, it indicated that the luminal volume was greatly influenced by osmolality of solution ingested orally. Then, fraction of drug absorbed (Fa) in these segments was calculated by comparing the area under the luminal concentration-time curve of FD-4 with those of drugs. Fa values of two model drugs in each GI segment decreased with increase in luminal fluid volume, and the impact of the fluid volume was marked for Fa of atenolol (a low permeable drug) than for that of metoprolol (a high permeable drug). These findings should be beneficial to assure the effectiveness and safety of oral drug therapy.