Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 receptor is expressed in platelets and enhances platelet activation and thrombosis.

PMID 25825396


Pattern recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is well investigated in immunity, but its expression and function in platelets has never been explored. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, we show that both human and mouse platelets express NOD2, and its agonist muramyl dipeptide induced NOD2 activation as evidenced by receptor dimerization. NOD2 activation potentiates platelet aggregation and secretion induced by low concentrations of thrombin or collagen, and clot retraction, as well. These potentiating effects of muramyl dipeptide were not seen in platelets from NOD2-deficient mice. Plasma from septic patients also potentiates platelet aggregation induced by thrombin or collagen NOD2 dependently. Using intravital microscopy, we found that muramyl dipeptide administration accelerated in vivo thrombosis in a FeCl3-injured mesenteric arteriole thrombosis mouse model. Platelet depletion and transfusion experiments confirmed that NOD2 from platelets contributes to the in vivo thrombosis in mice. NOD2 activation also accelerates platelet-dependent hemostasis. We further found that platelets express receptor-interacting protein 2, and provided evidence suggesting that mitogen activated-protein kinase and nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP/protein kinase G pathways downstream of receptor-interacting protein mediate the role of NOD2 in platelets. Finally, muramyl dipeptide stimulates proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β maturation and accumulation in human and mouse platelets NOD2 dependently. NOD2 is expressed in platelets and functions in platelet activation and arterial thrombosis, possibly during infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study on NOD-like receptors in platelets that link thrombotic events to inflammation.