Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

Immune Reconstitution in Severely Immunosuppressed Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients Starting Efavirenz, Lopinavir-Ritonavir, or Atazanavir-Ritonavir Plus Tenofovir/Emtricitabine: Final 48-Week Results (The Advanz-3 Trial).

PMID 25831464


Few randomized clinical trials have investigated antiretroviral regimens in very advanced HIV-1-infected patients. The objective was to study the immune reconstitution in very immunosuppressed antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected individuals by comparing an efavirenz-based regimen with 2 ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor regimens. Randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. Eighty-nine HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive patients with <100 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to efavirenz (n = 29), atazanavir/ritonavir (n = 30), or lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 30) combined with tenofovir plus emtricitabine. The primary outcome was median increase in CD4 cell count at week 48. Secondary end points were the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter, adverse events, disease progression, and death. In the on-treatment analysis, the median (interquartile range) increase in the CD4 count after 48 weeks was +193 (129-349) cells per microliter in the efavirenz arm, +197 (146-238) cells per microliter in the ritonavir-boosted atazanavir arm, and +205 (178-327) cells per microliter in the ritonavir-boosted lopinavir arm (P = 0.73). The percentage of patients achieving viral suppression was similar in all 3 treatment arms at 48 weeks {efavirenz, 85.71% [95% confidence interval (CI): 68.5 to 94.3]; atazanavir, 80% [95% CI: 62.7 to 90.5]; and lopinavir, 82.8% [95% CI: 65.5 to 92.4]; P = 0.88}. Bacterial translocation, inflammation, immune activation, and apoptotic markers, but not D-dimer, declined significantly and similarly in the 3 treatment arms. Adverse events had a similar incidence in all 3 antiretroviral regimens. No patients died. The immune reconstitution induced by an efavirenz-based regimen in very advanced HIV-1-infected patients was similar to that induced by a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen ( registration number: NCT00532168).