Journal of virology

Artificial Recruitment of UAF1-USP Complexes by a PHLPP1-E1 Chimeric Helicase Enhances Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

PMID 25833051


The E1 helicase from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types interacts with the cellular WD repeat-containing protein UAF1 in complex with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1, USP12, or USP46. This interaction stimulates viral DNA replication and is required for maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. E1 associates with UAF1 through a short UAF1-binding site (UBS) located within the N-terminal 40 residues of the protein. Here, we investigated if the E1 UBS could be replaced by the analogous domain from an unrelated protein, the pleckstrin homology domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1). We found that PHLPP1 and E1 interact with UAF1 in a mutually exclusive manner and mapped the minimal PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) to a 100-amino-acid region sufficient for assembly into UAF1-USP complexes. Similarly to the E1 UBS, overexpression of PUBS in trans inhibited HPV DNA replication, albeit less efficiently. Characterization of a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase revealed that PUBS could partially substitute for the E1 UBS in enhancing viral DNA replication and that the stimulatory effect of PUBS likely involves recruitment of UAF1-USP complexes, as it was abolished by mutations that weaken UAF1-binding and by overexpression of catalytically inactive USPs. Although functionally similar to the E1 UBS, PUBS is larger in size and requires both the WD repeat region and C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of UAF1 for interaction, in contrast to E1, which does not contact the latter. Overall, this comparison of two heterologous UBSs indicates that these domains function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that the association of E1 with UAF1-containing deubiquitinating complexes stimulates HPV DNA replication. The E1 protein from anogenital HPV types interacts with the UAF1-associated deubiquitinating enzymes USP1, USP12, and USP46 to stimulate replication of the viral genome. Little is known about the molecular nature of the E1-UAF1 interaction and, more generally, how UAF1-USP complexes recognize their substrate proteins. To address this question, we characterized the UAF1-binding site (UBS) of PHLPP1, a protein unrelated to E1. Using a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase, we show that the PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) can partially substitute for the E1 UBS in stimulating HPV DNA replication. This stimulation required conserved sequences in PUBS that meditate its interaction with UAF1, including a motif common to the E1 UBS. These results indicate that UAF1-binding sequences function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that UAF1-USP complexes stimulate HPV DNA replication.