Determination of Single-Kidney Glomerular Filtration Rate in Human Subjects by Using CT.

PMID 25848903


To test the hypothesis that computed tomography (CT)-derived measurements of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) obtained in human subjects with 64-section CT agree with those obtained with iothalamate clearance, a rigorous reference standard. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study, and written informed consent was obtained. Ninety-six patients (age range, 51-73 years; 46 men, 50 women) with essential (n = 56) or renovascular (n = 40) hypertension were prospectively studied in controlled conditions (involving sodium intake and renin-angiotensin blockade). Single-kidney perfusion, volume, and GFR were measured by using multidetector CT time-attenuation curves and were compared with GFR measured by using iothalamate clearance, as assigned to the right and left kidney according to relative volumes. The reproducibility of CT GFR over a 3-month period (n = 21) was assessed in patients with renal artery stenosis who were undergoing stable medical treatment. Statistical analysis included the t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, linear regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. CT GFR values were similar to those of iothalamate clearance (mean ± standard deviation, 38.2 mL/min ± 18 vs 41.6 mL/min ± 17; P = .062). Stenotic kidney CT GFR in patients with renal artery stenosis was lower than contralateral kidney GFR or essential hypertension single-kidney GFR (mean, 23.1 mL/min ± 13 vs 36.9 mL/min ± 17 [P = .0008] and 45.2 mL/min ± 16 [P = .019], respectively), as was iothalamate clearance (mean, 26.9 mL/min ± 14 vs 38.5 mL/min ± 15 [P = .0004] and 49.0 mL/min ± 14 [P = .001], respectively). CT GFR correlated well with iothalamate GFR (linear regression, CT GFR = 0.88*iothalamate GFR, r(2) = 0.89, P < .0001), and Bland-Altman analysis was used to confirm the agreement. CT GFR was also moderately reproducible in medically treated patients with renal artery stenosis (concordance coefficient correlation, 0.835) but was unaffected by revascularization (mean, 25.3 mL/min ± 15.2 vs 30.3 mL/min ± 18.5; P = .097). CT assessments of single-kidney GFR are reproducible and agree well with a reference standard. CT can be useful to obtain minimally invasive estimates of bilateral single-kidney function in human subjects.