British journal of pharmacology

Activation of PPAR-δ induces microRNA-100 and decreases the uptake of very low-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells.

PMID 25857370


Increased level of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. PPAR-δ agonists play a protective role in lipid metabolism and vascular function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PPAR-δ in the uptake of VLDL in endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism(s). Uptake of VLDL in HUVECs was assessed by Dil-fluorescent labelling of VLDL. Levels of VLDL receptor mRNA and microRNA (miR-100) were detected by quantitative PCR. The target genes of miR-100 were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. 3'-Untranslated region (3'-UTR) luciferase reporter and Argonaute 1 pull-down assays were used to validate the target of miR-100. PPAR-δ agonist GW501516 decreased uptake of VLDL and expression of VLDL receptor at mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 inhibited the luciferase reporter activity of the 3'-UTR of VLDL receptor. VLDL receptor was a direct target of miR-100. miR-100 was significantly increased by GW501516 in HUVECs. Transfection of a miR-100 mimic decreased the mRNA and protein levels of VLDL receptor and uptake of VLDL. Furthermore, a miR-100 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effect of PPAR-δ on VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake. In endothelial cells, activation of PPAR-δ decreased VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake via the induction of miR-100. These results provided a novel mechanism for the vascular protective effect of PPAR-δ agonists.

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GSK0660, ≥98% (HPLC)
GW501516, ≥98% (HPLC)