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The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology

Spray-dried extract of Phyllanthus niruri L. reduces mucosal damage in rats with intestinal inflammation.


PMID 25864680

Abstract

Phyllanthus niruri L. belongs to the Euphorbiaceae, and is known by the common name of 'stonebreaker' in Brazil. Some species within the Phyllanthus genus are widely used in traditional medicine to counteract different types of anti-inflammatory diseases. In this study, the preventive intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of spray-dried extract of P. niruri (SDEPn) was tested in the model of acetic acid (10%)-induced ulcerative colitis in the rat. Colitis animals were given orally at doses 25, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Colons tissue was analysed by macroscopic score, by histopathology score, by the immunohistochemical examination of tumour necrosis factor alpha, p53 and interferon gamma; by spectroscopic ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/VIS) analysis of the levels of myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde and total glutathione. Pretreatment of the extract to colitic rats significantly attenuated colonic macroscopic damage induced by acetic acid (P < 0.01). Spray-dried extract of P. niruri prevented glutathione depletion (P < 0.001) and malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05) declined. Spray-dried extract of P. niruri significantly reduced microscopic damage to tissues, such as leukocyte infiltration accompanied by a significant reduction in myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.5). Immunohistochemistry revealed a decline in the TNF-α, IFN-γ and p53 protein (P < 0.05). Spray-dried extract of P. niruri has a beneficial effect in the acute phase of acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat, which is probably related to its antioxidant properties.