The Journal of surgical research

Improved angiogenesis and healing in crush syndrome by fibroblast growth factor-2-containing low-molecular-weight heparin (Fragmin)/protamine nanoparticles.

PMID 25864985


We produced fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-containing low-molecular-weight heparin (Fragmin)/protamine nanoparticles (FGF-2 + F/P NPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the local administration of FGF-2 + F/P NPs on repairing crush syndrome (CS)-injured lesions after compression release using a nonlethal and reproducible CS injury rat model. The hind limbs of the anesthetized rats were compressed for 6 h using 3.6 kg blocks, as previously described. The effects of administering FGF-2 + F/P NPs (group A), F/P NPs alone (group B), FGF-2 alone (group C), and saline (control; group D) were examined. Motor function, surface blood flow in the hind limbs, and the wet/dry weight ratio in the tibialis anterior muscle were examined for 1-28 d after the compression release. Histologic analyses were also performed. At the middle and late stages (3-28 d after the compression release), group A had higher scores in the motor function, improved blood flow, increased number of blood vessels, and faster recovered muscle tissue, compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in enhanced edema in the tibialis anterior muscle among all groups. The local administration of FGF-2 + F/P NPs to a CS-injured lesion was effective in repairing damaged muscle tissue after compression release.