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Bone

Sclerostin antibody treatment causes greater alveolar crest height and bone mass in an ovariectomized rat model of localized periodontitis.


PMID 25868799

Abstract

Periodontitis and osteoporosis are bone destructive diseases with a high prevalence in the adult population. The concomitant presence of osteoporosis may be a risk factor of progression of periodontal destruction. We studied the effect of sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab) on alveolar bone endpoints in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of induced experimental periodontitis. Sixty female, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or bilateral OVX and were left untreated for 2 months. Experimental periodontitis (ligature) was established by placing silk sutures subgingival to the right maxillary first and second molar teeth for 4 weeks, and feeding the rats food and high-sugar drinking water during this period. Thereafter, ligatures were removed and 25mg/kg vehicle or Scl-Ab was administered subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 weeks. Rats were randomized into four groups: (1) Control (Sham+Vehicle), (2) Sham+Ligature+Vehicle, (3) OVX+Ligature+Vehicle, and (4) OVX + Ligature + Scl-Ab. Terminal blood and right maxilla specimens were collected for analyses. Group 3 rats showed lower bone volume fraction (BVF) of alveolar bone with higher bone resorption and lower bone formation than Group 2 rats. Group 4 rats had higher alveolar crest height, as assessed by linear distance of cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone crest and greater alveolar bone mass using Micro CT, than Group 3 rats. Significantly higher values of mineral apposition rate (MAR) and mineralizing surface/bone surface (MS/BS) were also observed in Group 4 rats by analyzing polychrome sequential labeling data. Increased serum osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin, and deceased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and CTx-1 illustrate the ability of Scl-Ab to increase alveolar bone mass by enhancing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption in an animal model of estrogen deficiency osteopenia plus periodontitis. Scl-Ab could be a potential bone anabolic agent for improving alveolar crest height and higher alveolar bone mass in conditions where alveolar bone loss in periodontitis is compounded by estrogen deficiency osteopenia.