Journal of the American Heart Association

Comprehensive T wave morphology assessment in a randomized clinical study of dofetilide, quinidine, ranolazine, and verapamil.

PMID 25870186


Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (abnormal hERG potassium channel) patients can develop flat, asymmetric, and notched T waves. Similar observations have been made with a limited number of hERG-blocking drugs. However, it is not known how additional calcium or late sodium block, that can decrease torsade risk, affects T wave morphology. Twenty-two healthy subjects received a single dose of a pure hERG blocker (dofetilide) and 3 drugs that also block calcium or sodium (quinidine, ranolazine, and verapamil) as part of a 5-period, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. At pre-dose and 15 time-points post-dose, ECGs and plasma drug concentration were assessed. Patch clamp experiments were performed to assess block of hERG, calcium (L-type) and late sodium currents for each drug. Pure hERG block (dofetilide) and strong hERG block with lesser calcium and late sodium block (quinidine) caused substantial T wave morphology changes (P<0.001). Strong late sodium current and hERG block (ranolazine) still caused T wave morphology changes (P<0.01). Strong calcium and hERG block (verapamil) did not cause T wave morphology changes. At equivalent QTc prolongation, multichannel blockers (quinidine and ranolazine) caused equal or greater T wave morphology changes compared with pure hERG block (dofetilide). T wave morphology changes are directly related to amount of hERG block; however, with quinidine and ranolazine, multichannel block did not prevent T wave morphology changes. A combined approach of assessing multiple ion channels, along with ECG intervals and T wave morphology may provide the greatest insight into drug-ion channel interactions and torsade de pointes risk. URL: Unique identifier: NCT01873950.

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Dofetilide, ≥98% (HPLC)
Quinidine sulfate salt dihydrate
C40H48N4O4 · H2O4S · 2H2O