BMC complementary and alternative medicine

Synergistic effects of acyclovir and 3, 19-isopropylideneandrographolide on herpes simplex virus wild types and drug-resistant strains.

PMID 25879785


An andrographolide analogue, 3, 19-isopropylideneandrographolide (IPAD), exerts an inhibitory effect on replication of wild-type herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (HSV-1). In this study, we examined the anti-viral activity of IPAD on HSV wild types (HSV-1 strain KOS and HSV-2 clinical isolate) and HSV-1 drug-resistant strains (DRs). Synergistic effects of IPAD with acyclovir (ACV) were also evaluated. MTT and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays were performed to determine cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities, respectively. A combination assay was used to determine synergistic effects of IPAD and ACV. Presence of viral DNA and protein in experimental cells was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A non-cytotoxic concentration of IPAD (20.50 μM) completely inhibited CPE formation induced by HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs after viral entry into the cells. The anti-HSV activities included inhibition of viral DNA and protein synthesis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ACV for HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs were 20.20 and 2,220.00 μM, respectively. Combination of ACV with IPAD showed synergistic effects in inhibition of CPE formation, viral DNA and protein synthesis by HSV wild types as well as HSV-1 DRs. For the synergistic effects on HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs, the effective concentrations of ACV were reduced. These results showed the inhibitory potential of IPAD on HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs and suggested that IPAD could be used in combination with ACV for treatment of HSV-1 DRs infections.