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European journal of medical research

Clinical implications of the quantitative detection of ID4 gene methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome.


PMID 25889027

Abstract

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) eventually transforms into acute leukemia (AL) in about 30% of patients. Hypermethylation of the inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) gene may play an important role in the initiation and development of MDS and AL. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess ID4 gene methylation in MDS and to establish if it could be an effective method of evaluating MDS disease progression. We examined 142 bone marrow samples from MDS patients, healthy donors and MDS-AL patients using bisulfite sequencing PCR and quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR. The ID4 methylation rates and levels were assessed. ID4 methylation occurred in 27 patients (27/100). ID4 gene methylation was more frequent and at higher levels in patients with advanced disease stages and in high-risk subgroups according to WHO (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) and International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) (P = 0.002, P = 0.007, respectively) classifications. ID4 methylation levels changed during disease progression. Both methylation rates and methylation levels were significantly different between healthy donor, MDS patients and patients with MDS-AL (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that the level of ID4 methylation was an independent factor influencing overall survival. Patients with MDS showed decreased survival time with increased ID4 methylation levels (P = 0.011, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.371). Patients with ID4 methylation had shorter survival time than those without ID4 methylation (P = 0.008). Our findings suggest that ID4 gene methylation might be a new biomarker for MDS monitoring and the detection of minimal residual disease.