Bone marrow transplantation

Gut microbiota trajectory in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic SCT.

PMID 25893458


Acute GvHD (aGvHD) is the main complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) during the treatment of hematological disorders. We carried out the first longitudinal study to follow the gut microbiota trajectory, from both the phylogenetic and functional points of view, in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. Gut microbiota trajectories and short-chain fatty acid production profiles were followed starting from before HSCT and through the 3-4 months after transplant in children developing and not developing aGvHD. According to our findings, HSCT procedures temporarily cause a structural and functional disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem, describing a trajectory of recovery during the following 100 days. The onset of aGvHD is associated with specific gut microbiota signatures both along the course of gut microbiota reconstruction immediately after transplant and, most interestingly, prior to HSCT. Indeed, in pre-HSCT samples, non-aGvHD patients showed higher abundances of propionate-producing Bacteroidetes, highly adaptable microbiome mutualists that showed to persist during the HSCT-induced ecosystem disruption. Our data indicate that structure and temporal dynamics of the gut microbial ecosystem can be a relevant factor for the success of HSCT and opens the perspective to the manipulation of the pre-HSCT gut microbiota configuration to favor mutualistic persisters with immunomodulatory properties in the gut.