The British journal of dermatology

Mast-cell interleukin-1β, neutrophil interleukin-17 and epidermal antimicrobial proteins in the neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis in Schnitzler's syndrome.

PMID 25904179


Schnitzler's syndrome (SchS) is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by a chronic urticarial rash, a monoclonal component and signs of systemic inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-1β is pivotal in the pathophysiology. Here we investigated the cellular source of proinflammatory mediators in the skin of patients with SchS. Skin biopsies of lesional and nonlesional skin from eight patients with SchS and healthy controls, and patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), delayed-pressure urticaria (DPU) and cold-contact urticaria (CCU) were studied. We studied inxa0vivoIL-1β, IL-17 and antimicrobial protein (AMP) expression in resident skin cells and infiltrating cells. In addition we investigated the inxa0vitro effect of IL-1β, IL-17 and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly:IC) stimulation on cultured epidermal keratinocytes. Remarkably, we found IL-1β-positive dermal mast cells in both lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with SchS, but not in healthy control skin and CCU, and fewer in CAPS. IL-17-positive neutrophils were observed only in lesional SchS and DPU skin. In lesional SchS epidermis, mRNA and protein expression levels of AMPs were strongly increased compared with nonlesional skin and that of healthy controls. When exposed to IL-1β, poly:IC or IL-17, patient and control primary human keratinocytes produced AMPs in similar amounts. Dermal mast cells of patients with SchS produce IL-1β. This presumably leads to activation of keratinocytes and neutrophil influx, and further amplification of inflammation by IL-17 (from neutrophils and mast cells) and epidermal AMP production leading to chronic histamine-independent neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis.