Environmental research

Exposure of the population of Catalonia (Spain) to musk fragrances through seafood consumption: Risk assessment.

PMID 25913711


The occurrence of ten synthetic musks in samples of 10 widely consumed fish and shellfish species from Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) was determined. The most used nitro and polycyclic musks, as well as a well-known transformation product in tissues, were analyzed. Furthermore, the human health risks derived from the musk exposure through seafood consumption were characterized. None of the nitro musks were detected in any of the analyzed samples. In contrast, most of the polycyclic musks were found, being galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) present in all the samples. HHCB was the greatest contributor, with maximum levels in sardine and mackerel (367 and 304 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (dry weight), respectively). The highest exposure to individual musks was estimated for HHCB and HHCB-Lactone, with average values of 19.7 and 6.8 ng kg(-1)bw day(-1), respectively, in adults. A notably lower mean exposure was calculated for AHTN, cashmeran (DPMI) and traseolide (ATII), being ranged between 1.1 and 3.7 ng kg(-1)bw day(-1). The current concentrations of musks in fish and shellfish should not mean human health risks for the adult population living in Tarragona. However, a continuous monitoring would be desirable to assure that the exposure does not follow increasing temporal trends.

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Musk ketone, ≥98%