Functional characterization of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2.

PMID 25917363


Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) plays a critical role in the formation of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a potential target for treating hypercholesterolemia. We recently reported the significant effects of two human ACAT2 gene polymorphisms, 41A>G (Glu(14)Gly, rs9658625) and 734C>T (Thr(254)Ile, rs2272296), on plasma lipid levels and coronary artery disease susceptibility in a case-control association study. In the present study, we evaluated the possible biological influence of the two polymorphism using two approaches. In the first approach, the functional impact of the two polymorphisms was predicted in-silico using available web-based software, and in the second approach, the varying functions of the two polymorphisms were characterized in in vitro experiments, using ACAT2-deficient AC-29 cells. Our results show that the enzymatic activity of mutant Glu(14)Gly is approximately two times higher than wildtype, and that this increase is primarily due to the increased expression and/or stability of the mutant ACAT2 protein. These results suggest that the genetic variation at Glu(14)Gly is functionally important and may contribute to ACAT2 protein expression and stability.