Astaxanthin attenuates adriamycin-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

PMID 25924598


Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a specific pattern of chronic renal injury with progressive glomerular scarring. The phenotypic alterations that contribute to FSGS include inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (ATX) has a broad range of biological functions, particularly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones. This study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of ATX treatment on Adriamycin-induced FSGS. In Balb/c mice, Adriamycin nephropathy was induced by Adriamycin (10 mg/kg body weight, diluted in normal saline) via a tail vein on day 0. Then the mice were treated with ATX (50 mg/kg body weight) once daily by oral gavage, again starting on the day of Adriamycin injection and continued for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the mice were sacrificed; kidneys and blood samples were collected for further analysis. Animals that underwent intermittent exposure to ATX treatment exhibited significant improvements in renal functional parameters as well as in glomerular and interstitial fibrosis compared to those undergoing saline treatment in FSGS mouse models. ATX treatment exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by promoting Nrf2 expression and suppressing renal nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation. ATX might offer a ray of hope for ameliorating FSGS.