BMC cancer

Down-regulation of NF kappa B activation is an effective therapeutic modality in acquired platinum-resistant bladder cancer.

PMID 25926105


No previous study has addressed the efficacy of NF-κB blockade when bladder tumors develop acquired resistance toward CDDP-treatments. We investigated the changes in NF-κB activation and therapeutic impact of NF-κB blockade by the novel NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethyl derivative of epoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) in CDDP-resistant bladder cancer cells. Two human invasive bladder cancer cell lines, T24 and T24PR, were used. The T24PR cell line was newly established as an acquired platinum-resistant subline by culturing in CDDP-containing medium for 6xa0months. Expression of intranuclear p65 protein in the fractionated two cell lines was determined by Western blotting analysis. DNA-binding activity of NF-κB was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The cytotoxic effects and induction of apoptosis were analyzed in vivo and in vitro. Intranuclear expression and DNA-binding activity of p65 were strongly enhanced in T24PR cells compared with those of T24 cells, and both were significantly suppressed by DHMEQ. Lowered cell viability and strong induction of apoptosis were observed by treatment with DHMEQ alone in these chemo-resistant cells compared with parent cells. As T24PR cells did not show dramatic cross-resistance to paclitaxel in the in vitro study, we next examined whether the combination of DHMEQ with paclitaxel could enhance the therapeutic effect of the paclitaxel treatment in T24PR tumors. Using mouse xenograft models, the mean volume of tumors treated with the combination of DHMEQ (2xa0mg/kg) and paclitaxel (10xa0mg/kg) was significantly smaller than those treated with paclitaxel alone (p < 0.05), and the reduction of tumor volume in mice treated with DHMEQ in combination with paclitaxel and paclitaxel alone as compared to vehicle control was 66.9% and 17.0%, respectively. There was a distinct change in the activation level of NF-κB between T24 and T24PR cells, suggesting strong nuclear localization of NF-κB could be a promising target after developing acquired platinum-resistance in bladder cancer.