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The Journal of nutrition

Breastfeeding status at age 3 months is associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers at age 4 years in Mexican children.


PMID 25926414

Abstract

The effect of breastfeeding (BF) on cardiometabolic risk factors is not well characterized. The objective was to assess the association of BF status at 3 mo and duration with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers at 4 y. We studied 727 children with prospectively collected BF information and anthropometric measurements at 4 y, of whom 524 provided a nonfasting blood sample. BF status at 3 mo was classified as exclusive or predominant (EBF-PreBF), partial (PaBF), or nonbreastfeeding (NBF). Total duration of any BF was classified as <3 mo, 3- 6 mo, >6 to 12 mo, and >12 mo. We modeled associations of BF with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and insulin at 4 y. Children who were NBF or PaBF at 3 mo had higher BMI [0.46 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.76) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.54), respectively] than the EBF-PreBF group (P < 0.01). NBF children had higher total cholesterol (8.02 mg/dL; 95% CI: 1.39, 14.64; P = 0.02) than children who were EBF-PreBF. LDL cholesterol (5.04 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.72, 10.81) and TGs (12% change; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.24) showed similar patterns. An inverse association between EBF-PreBF and insulin, mediated through abdominal circumference, was documented (P < 0.05). Children breastfed <3 mo had higher BMI (0.44; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.77) at 4 y than children breastfed for >12 mo. EBF and PreBF at 3 mo were associated with lower adiposity and serum total cholesterol in children at 4 y. In addition, BF >12 mo was associated with lower adiposity. These data confirm the importance of exclusive BF and prolonged BF for later cardiometabolic health.