International journal of biological macromolecules

Chondroitin nanocapsules enhanced doxorubicin induced apoptosis against leishmaniasis via Th1 immune response.

PMID 25931395


Current leishmaniasis treatment is strangled due to concealed residence of parasite and reduced host cell mediated immune response. To circumvent above challenges, novel macrophage targeted oily core polymeric shell based doxorubicin (DOX) loaded nanocapsules (NCAPs) were fabricated employing chondroitin sulphate (CHD) for complimentary immunotherapy coupled chemotherapy against leishmaniasis. Excellent encapsulation efficiency along with pH dependent drug release was demonstrated by NCAPs. Improved cell cycle arrest at G1-S phase (1.56 folds) and apoptosis against promastigotes (6.26 folds), support the remarkable in-vitro antileishmanial activity of NCAPs (IC50: 0.254±0.038 μg/ml) compared to free DOX (IC50: 0.543±0.012 μg/ml). In-vivo antileishmanial activity in hamsters represented a significantly enhanced parasitic inhibition by NCAPs (1.42 folds). Improved activity was mediated via immunotherapeutic activity of NCAPs which up-regulated Th1 immune response (IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α) and down-regulated Th2 immune response (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β). In conclusion, current novel nano-formulation could be a viable option against leishmaniasis.