European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

Biodistribution of size-selected lyophilisomes in mice.

PMID 25953331


Lyophilisomes are a novel class of proteinaceous biodegradable nano/microparticle capsules developed for tumor drug delivery. The in vivo characteristics of lyophilisomes are unknown and, therefore, the time course of biodistribution of sized albumin-based lyophilisomes in CD1 mice after intravenous administration was studied. Lyophilisomes, prepared from Dylight680-labeled albumin, were sized using a sucrose gradient centrifugation methodology and four fractions with a mean size of approximately 200nm, 400nm, 550nm, and 650nm were pooled for in/ex vivo localization, (immuno)histochemistry and biochemical analysis. Lyophilisomes were rapidly taken out of the circulation by the liver and spleen. Immunohistochemistry revealed that lyophilisomes were taken up in the liver by F4/80 positive macrophages, and in the spleen by Sign-R1 positive macrophages specifically located in the marginal zones. Lyophilisomes were most likely degraded by the liver and spleen and subsequently excreted via the urine, as high levels of degraded Dylight680-labeled albumin were detected in the urine. This was corroborated by electron microscopy of the spleen, which showed intact lyophilisomes in the marginal zone 5 and 30min after injection, but not after 2h. In conclusion, IV injected lyophilisomes are rapidly entrapped by liver and splenic macrophages, biodegraded, and excreted in the urine.