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Journal of psychiatric research

Effects of mood stabilizers on oxidative stress-induced cell death signaling pathways in the brains of rats subjected to the ouabain-induced animal model of mania: Mood stabilizers exert protective effects against ouabain-induced activation of the cell death pathway.


PMID 25959616

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers, specifically lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA), on mitochondrial superoxide, lipid peroxidation, and proteins involved in cell death signaling pathways in the brains of rats subjected to the ouabain-induced animal model of mania. Wistar rats received Li, VPA, or saline twice a day for 13 days. On the 7th day of treatment, the animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain or aCSF. After the ICV injection, the treatment with mood stabilizers continued for 6 additional days. The locomotor activity of rats was measured using the open-field test. In addition, we analyzed oxidative stress parameters, specifically levels of phosphorylated p53 (pp53), BAX and Bcl-2 in the brain of rats by immunoblot. Li and VPA reversed ouabain-related hyperactivity. Ouabain decreased Bcl-2 levels and increased the oxidative stress parameters BAX and pp53 in the brains of rats. Li and VPA improved these ouabain-induced cellular dysfunctions; however, the effects of the mood stabilizers were dependent on the protein and brain region analyzed. These findings suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase can be an important link between oxidative damage and the consequent reduction of neuronal and glial density, which are both observed in BD, and that Li and VPA exert protective effects against ouabain-induced activation of the apoptosis pathway.