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PloS one

Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion to the Surface of a Reticular Heavyweight Polypropylene Mesh Soaked in a Combination of Chlorhexidine and Allicin: An In vitro Study.


PMID 25962163

Abstract

Presoaking meshes for hernia repair with antiseptics prior to implantation could decrease the adhesion of microorganisms to the material surface and reduce the risk of antibiotic resistances. In this work, we evaluate chlorhexidine and allicin (natural antiseptic not yet tested for these purposes) against vancomycin as antiseptics to be used in the pretreatment of a heavyweight polypropylene mesh using an in vitro model of bacterial contamination. Solutions of saline, vancomycin (40 µg/mL), allicin (1,000 µg/mL), chlorhexidine (2%-0.05%) and the combination allicin-chlorhexidine (900 µg/mL-0.05%) were analyzed with agar diffusion tests in the presence of 106 CFU Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. Additionally, sterile fragments of Surgipro (1 cm2) were soaked with the solutions and cultured onto contaminated agar plates for 24/48/72 h. The antimicrobial material DualMesh Plus was utilized as positive control. At every time, the inhibition zones were measured and the bacterial adhesion to the mesh surface quantified (sonication, scanning electron microscopy). Cytotoxicity of the treatments was examined (alamarBlue) using rabbit skin fibroblasts. The largest zones of inhibition were created by allicin-chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine was more effective than vancomycin, and allicin lost its effectiveness after 24 h. No bacteria adhered to the surface of the DualMesh Plus or the meshes soaked with vancomycin, chlorhexidine and allicin-chlorhexidine. On the contrary, saline and allicin allowed adherence of high loads of bacteria. Vancomycin had no toxic effects on fibroblasts, while allicin and chlorhexidine exerted high toxicity. Cytotoxicity was significantly reduced with the allicin-chlorhexidine combination. The use of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine, alone or combined with others like allicin, could represent an adequate prophylactic strategy to be used for hernia repair materials because soaking with these agents provides the mesh with similar antibacterial properties to those observed after soaking with vancomycin, similar to the effect of DualMesh Plus.

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282227
Chlorhexidine, ≥99.5%
C22H30Cl2N10