Anticancer research

¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia and Haematological Malignancies.

PMID 25964587


The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hyper-metabolic infection sites revealed by fluorine-18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). Forty-eight consecutive patients with haematological malignancies and persistent FN (temperature ≥ 38°C and neutrophil count <500 cells/μl for more than two days) as a consequence of intensive chemotherapy were prospectively included. Pathological FDG uptakes identified 31 foci of infections located in the lungs (n=15, 48.4 %), colon (n=4, 12.9%), pancreas (n=2, 6.5%), skin (n=3, 9.7%), ear-nose-throat area (n=5, 16.1%), central venous catheter tract (n=1, 3.2%) and gallbladder (n=1, 3.2%). These pathological FDG uptakes were observed in half of the 48 patients (n=24). Among the 38 patients with a clinical diagnosis of infection, 23 showed a pathological FDG uptake, resulting in a FDG-PET/CT sensitivity of 61% (95% CI, 43-76%). Our study confirmed the ability of FDG-PET/CT to diagnose infections in patients with persistent FN.