Free radical research

Mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase plays a role in the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning by modulating complex I activity and mitochondrial ROS generation.

PMID 25968938


While ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and other cardioprotective interventions have been proposed to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I activity upon reperfusion, the exact mechanism underlying the modulation of complex I activity remains elusive. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that IPC modulates complex I activity at reperfusion by activating mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase, and induces cardioprotection against I/R injury. Isolated rat hearts were preconditioned by three cycles of 5-min ischemia and 5-min reperfusion prior to 30-min index ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Mitochondrial Src phosphorylation (Tyr(416)) was dramatically decreased during I/R, implying inactivation of Src tyrosine kinase by I/R. IPC increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation upon reperfusion and this was inhibited by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. IPC's anti-infarct effect was inhibited by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. Complex I activity was significantly increased upon reperfusion, an effect that was prevented by IPC in a Src tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. In support, Src and phospho-Src were found in complex I. Furthermore, IPC prevented hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cellular injury in rat cardiomyocytes, which was revoked by PP2. Finally, IPC reduced LDH release induced by both hypoxia/reoxygenation and simulated ischemia/reperfusion, an effect that was reversed by PP2 and Src siRNA. These data suggest that mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase accounts for the inhibitory action of IPC on complex I and mitochondrial ROS generation, and thereby plays a role in the cardioprotective effect of IPC.

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