Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Metabolic Disposition and Elimination of Cyadox in Pigs, Chickens, Carp, and Rats.

PMID 25973850


The metabolism, distribution, and elimination of cyadox (CYA) is investigated in pigs, chickens, carp, and rats to identify the marker residue and target tissue of CYA in food animals for food safety concerns. Following a single oral gavage of [(3)H]-CYA, the total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with more than 95% of the dose excreted within 14 days in the four species. Fecal excretion of the total radioactivity was 66.2% and 51.6%, and urinary excretion of the total radioactivity was 28.35% and 44.3% in rats and pigs, respectively. Radioactivity was observed in nearly all of the tissues in the first 6 h after 7 days of consecutive oral dosing. The highest radioactivity and longest persistence were in the livers and kidneys, where the majority of the radioactivity was cleared within 7 days. A total of 15 metabolites were identified in rats, pigs, chickens, and carp, and eight new metabolites were identified for the first time in vivo. No parent drug could be detected in the tissues of rats and pigs. The major metabolites of CYA were Cy1, Cy3, and Cy6 in pigs, Cy1, Cy5, and Cy6 in chickens, Cy1, Cy2, and Cy4 in carp, and Cy1, Cy2, Cy4, and Cy5 in rats. Cy1 was suggested to be the marker residue, and the kidneys were identified as the target tissue of CYA in pigs and chickens. These results provide comprehensive information for the food safety evaluation of CYA in food animals and will improve the understanding of the pharmacology and toxicology of CYA in animals.