Cell stress & chaperones

Caco-2 cells infected with rotavirus release extracellular vesicles that express markers of apoptotic bodies and exosomes.

PMID 25975376


Previously, we showed that infecting human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) with rotavirus (RV) increases the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) with an immunomodulatory function that, upon concentration at 100,000×g, present buoyant densities on a sucrose gradient of between 1.10 to 1.18 g/ml (characteristic of exosomes) and higher than 1.24 g/ml (proposed for apoptotic bodies). The effect of cellular death induced by RV on the composition of these EV is unknown. Here, we evaluated exosome (CD63, Hsc70, and AChE) and apoptotic body (histone H3) markers in EVs isolated by differential centrifugation (4000×g, 10,000×g, and 100,000×g) or filtration/ultracentrifugation (100,000×g) protocols. When we infected cells in the presence of caspase inhibitors, Hsc70 and AChE diminished in EVs obtained at 100,000×g, but not in EVs obtained at 4000×g or 10,000×g. In addition, caspase inhibitors decreased CD63 and AChE in vesicles with low and high buoyant densities. Without caspase inhibitors, RV infection increased exosome markers in all of the EVs obtained by differential centrifugation. However, CD63 preferentially localized in the 100,000×g fraction and H3 only increased in EVs concentrated at 100,000×g and with high buoyant densities on a sucrose gradient. Thus, RV infection increases the release of EVs that, upon concentration at 100,000×g, are composed by exosomes and apoptotic bodies, which can partially be separated using sucrose gradients.