Journal of applied microbiology

Diversity of food-borne Bacillus volatile compounds and influence on fungal growth.

PMID 25989039


To evaluate the antifungal activity of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by 75 different food-borne Bacillus species against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus clavatus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and Moniliophthora perniciosa and to determine the VOCs responsible for the inhibition. Bacillus strains inhibited fungal growth, although with different inhibition grades, with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus cereus strains as the best antifungal VOCs producers. While M. perniciosa DM4B and F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucae MA28 were the most sensitive fungi, A. parasiticus MG51 showed the greatest resistance to Bacillus VOCs exposure. Thirty-seven compounds were detected by SPME-GC-MS analysis, although similar patterns in volatile compounds were evidenced within the species, interspecific VOCs differences determined different effects on fungal growth. Multiple partial least regression (MPLRS) and antifungal activity of the individual VOCs revealed that only propanone, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, carbon disulphide, 3-methylbutanoic acid and ethyl acetate were responsible for mycelia inhibition of M. perniciosa DM4B and F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucae MA28. The antagonistic activity of the Bacillus VOCs was demonstrated, although it cannot easily be explained through the action of a single molecule, thus a holistic approach could be more appropriate to estimate the fungal growth inhibition. VOCs produced by Bacillus from cooked food can be considered as promising antifungal compounds useful in the control of fungal plant pathogens. This study investigates for the first time the correlation between mycelia inhibition of M. perniciosa and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and the VOCs emitted by the Bacillus species.