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Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases

Effect of Ambroxol and Beclomethasone on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitrosative Stress in Bronchial Epithelial Cells.


PMID 25998443

Abstract

Nitrosative stress is involved in different airway diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces neutrophil-related cytokine release and nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells alone or with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Ambroxol protects against oxidative stress, and beclomethasone dipropionate is an anti-inflammatory drug. We evaluated the ability of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate to inhibit LPS-induced expression/release of RANTES, IL-8, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT: nitrosative stress biomarker) in BEAS-2B ± PMNs stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml). The effect of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8, RANTES and iNOS levels was assessed by Western blot analysis; IL-8, MPO and 3-NT levels were measured by ELISA. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. In BEAS-2B alone, LPS (at 12 h) increased RANTES/iNOS expression and IL-8 levels (p < 0.001). Ambroxol suppressed LPS-induced RANTES expression and IL-8 release (p < 0.001), whilst inhibiting iNOS expression (p < 0.05). Beclomethasone dipropionate had no effect on RANTES but halved iNOS expression and IL-8 release. Coculture of BEAS-2B with PMNs stimulated IL-8, MPO and 3-NT production (p < 0.001), potentiated by LPS (p < 0.001). Ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-8, MPO and 3-NT release (p < 0.05). Ambroxol/beclomethasone dipropionate combination potentiated the inhibition of IL-8 and 3-NT production in BEAS-2B with PMNs (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited nitrosative stress and the release of neutrophilic inflammatory products in vitro. The additive effect of ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8 and 3-NT inhibition suggests new therapeutic options in the treatment of neutrophil-related respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.