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Neurology India

Clinical profile and outcome of patients with acromegaly according to the 2014 consensus guidelines: Impact of a multi-disciplinary team.


PMID 26053808

Abstract

The diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly, a rare and possibly curable disease, has undergone a paradigm shift in the past few decades. Our aim was to study the changing trends in clinical presentation, management and outcome of the disease in the last fifteen years. 271 consecutive patients with acromegaly treated at the Departments of Endocrinology and Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, between 2000 and 2014, were included in the study. Clinical and hormonal profiles, comorbidities, treatment modalities, outcome and mortality data were evaluated. The cure rate was assessed according to the present consensus criteria. The gender distribution was equal with the mean age (±SD) of 37.1 ± 12.3 years at diagnosis. The average lag period to diagnosis was 4.7 ± 4.2 years. The most common presenting manifestations were acral enlargement and headache followed by visual deficits. The overall mortality rate was 5%, with the perioperative mortality being 1.5%. The most prevalent comorbidities in our series were hypertension (17.7%), diabetes mellitus (16.2%), arthropathy (11.8%) and obstructive sleep apnea (10.3%). Overall, 2 patients in our series suffered from extra-pituitary neoplasms and 12 patients had apoplexy as the presenting manifestation. As per the present consensus criteria, cure rate in our series was 28.5%. The cure rate was only 7.9% when many surgeons were operating. It increased to 25.5% when surgeries were being performed by one surgeon exclusively; and, when a sub-specialty clinic exclusively for pituitary diseases was set up, the cure rates improved upto 56%. Acromegaly has wide-ranging manifestations from acral enlargement to altered sensorium; incidental diagnosis was not prevalent in our series. Majority of the cases were due to the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma. Better cure rate can be achieved only when a dedicated group of multi-disciplinary team is involved.