PloS one

Serum N-Glycans: A New Diagnostic Biomarker for Light Chain Multiple Myeloma.

PMID 26075387


The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and differential diagnostic power of serum N-glycans for light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM). A total of 167 cases of subjects, including 42 LCMM, 42 IgG myeloma, 41 IgA myeloma, and 42 healthy controls were recruited in this study. DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) was applied to determine the quantitive abundance of serum N-glycans. The core fucosylated, bisecting and sialylated modifications were analyzed in serum of LCMM patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20) randomly selected from the same cohort by lectin blot. Moreover, serum sialic acid (SA) level was measured by enzymatic method. We found two N-glycan structures (NG1A2F, Peak3; NA2FB, Peak7) showed the optimum diagnostic efficacy with area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.939 and 0.940 between LCMM and healthy control. The sensitivity and specificity of Peak3 were 88.1% and 92.9%, while Peak7 were 92.9% and 97.6%, respectively. The abundance of Peak3 could differentiate LCMM from IgG myeloma with AUC 0.899, sensitivity 100% and specificity 76.2%, and Peak7 could be used to differentiate LCMM from IgA myeloma with AUC 0.922, sensitivity 92.9% and specificity 82.9%. Serum SA level was significantly higher in patients with LCMM than that in healthy controls. Moreover, the decreased core fucosylation, bisecting and increased sialylation characters of serum glycoproteins were observed in patients with LCMM. We concluded that serum N-glycan could provide a simple, reliable and non-invasive biomarker for LCMM diagnosis and abnormal glycosylation might imply a new potential therapeutic target in LCMM.