Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology

Cerebrospinal Fluid Particles in Alzheimer Disease and Parkinson Disease.

PMID 26083568


Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains diverse lipid particles, including lipoproteins that are distinct from their plasma counterparts and contain apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms, apoJ, and apoAI, and extracellular vesicles, which can be detected by annexin V binding. The aim of this study was to develop a method to quantify CSF particles and evaluate their relationship to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We used a flow cytometric assay to detect annexin V-, apoE-, apoAI-, apoJ-, and amyloid (A) β42-positive particles in CSF from 131 research volunteers who were neurologically normal or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, or Parkinson disease. APOE ε4/ε4 participants had CSF apoE-positive particles that were more frequently larger but at an 88% lower level versus those in APOE ε3/ε3 or APOE ε3/ε4 patients; this finding was reproduced in conditioned medium from mouse primary glial cell cultures with targeted replacement of apoE. Cerebrospinal fluid apoE-positive and β-amyloid (Aβ42)-positive particle concentrations were persistently reduced one-third to one-half in middle and older age subjects; apoAI-positive particle concentration progressively increased approximately 2-fold with age. Both apoAI-positive and annexin V-positive CSF particle levels were reduced one-third to one-half in CSF of MCI and/or AD dementia patients versus age-matched controls. Our approach provides new methods to investigate CNS lipid biology in relation to neurodegeneration and perhaps develop new biomarkers for diagnosis or treatment monitoring.