American journal of physiology. Renal physiology

Glomerulosclerosis in the diet-induced obesity model correlates with sensitivity to nitric oxide inhibition but not glomerular hyperfiltration or hypertrophy.

PMID 26109088


The diet-induced obesity (DIO) model is frequently used to examine the pathogenesis of obesity-related pathologies; however, only minimal glomerulosclerosis (GS) has been reported after 3 mo. We investigated if GS develops over longer periods of DIO and examined the potential role of hemodynamic mechanisms in its pathogenesis. Eight-week-old male obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats (Charles River) were administered a moderately high-fat diet for 5 mo. Radiotelemetrically measured blood pressure, proteinuria, and GS were assessed. OP (n=10) rats developed modest hypertension (142±3 vs. 128±2 mmHg, P<0.05) and substantial levels of proteinuria (63±12 vs. 12±1 mg/day, P<0.05) and GS (7.7±1.4% vs. 0.4±0.2%) compared with OR rats (n=8). Potential hemodynamic mechanisms of renal injury were assessed in additional groups of OP and OR rats fed a moderately high-fat diet for 3 mo. Kidney weight (4.3±0.2 vs. 4.3±0.1 g), glomerular filtration rate (3.3±0.3 vs. 3.1±0.1 ml/min), and glomerular volume (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.0±0.1 μm3×10(-6)) were similar between OP (n=6) and OR (n=9) rats. Renal blood flow autoregulation was preserved in both OP (n=7) and OR (n=7) rats. In contrast, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration in conscious, chronically instrumented OP (n=11) rats resulted in 15% and 39% increases in blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, respectively, and a 16% decrease in renal blood flow. Minimal effects of L-NAME were seen in OR (n=9) rats. In summary, DIO-associated GS is preceded by an increased hemodynamic sensitivity to L-NAME but not renal hypertrophy or hyperfiltration.