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BMC infectious diseases

Impact of Clostridium difficile infection among pneumonia and urinary tract infection hospitalizations: an analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.


PMID 26126606

Abstract

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains one of the major hospital acquired infections in the nation, often attributable to increased antibiotic use. Little research, however, exists on the prevalence and impact of CDI on patient and hospital outcomes among populations requiring such treatment. As such, the goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of CDI among pneumonia and urinary tract infection (UTI) hospitalizations. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2009-2011), reflecting a 20% stratified sample of community hospitals in the United States, was used. A total of 593,038 pneumonia and 255,770 UTI discharges were included. Survey-weighted multivariable regression analyses were conducted to assess the predictors and impact of CDI among pneumonia and UTI discharges. A significantly higher prevalence of CDI was present among men with UTI (13.3 per 1,000) as compared to women (11.3 per 1,000). CDI was associated with higher in-hospital mortality among discharges for pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for men = 3.2, women aOR = 2.8) and UTI (aOR for men = 4.1, women aOR = 3.4). Length of stay among pneumonia and UTI discharges were also double upon presence of CDI. In addition, CDI increased the total charges by at least 75% and 55% among pneumonia and UTI discharges, respectively. Patient and hospital characteristics associated with CDI included being 65 years or older, Charlson Deyo index for comorbidity of 2 or more, Medicare as the primary payer, and discharge from urban hospitals, among both pneumonia and UTI discharges. CDI occurs frequently in hospitalizations among those discharged from hospital for pneumonia and UTI, and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and health resource utilization. Interventions to mitigate the burden of CDI in these high-risk populations are urgently needed.