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Scientific reports

Cantharidin represses invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through accelerated degradation of MMP2 mRNA.


PMID 26135631

Abstract

Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine, and is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that plays an important role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and cell-fate determination. In the present study, we found that cantharidin repressed the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression through multiple pathways, including ERK, JNK, PKC, NF-κB, and β-catenin. Interestingly, transcriptional activity of the MMP2 promoter increased after treatment with PP2A inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of a posttranscriptional mechanism. By using an mRNA stability assay, we found accelerated degradation of MMP2 mRNA after treatment of cantharidin. Microarray analyses revealed that multiple genes involved in the 3' → 5' decay pathway were upregulated, especially genes participating in cytoplasmic deadenylation. The elevation of these genes were further demonstrated to be executed through ERK, JNK, PKC, NF-κB, and β-catenin pathways. Knockdown of PARN, RHAU, and CNOT7, three critical members involved in cytoplasmic deadenylation, attenuated the downregulation of MMP2. Hence, we present the mechanism of repressed invasion by cantharidin and other PP2A inhibitors through increased degradation of MMP2 mRNA by elevated cytoplasmic deadenylation.

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