Ex situ electrochemical sodiation/desodiation observation of Co₃O₄ anchored carbon nanotubes: a high performance sodium-ion battery anode produced by pulsed plasma in a liquid.

PMID 26176997


Liquid plasma, produced by nanosecond pulses, provides an efficient and simple way to fabricate a nanocomposite architecture of Co3O4/CNTs from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and clusters of Co3O4 nanoparticles in deionized water. The crucial feature of the composite's structure is that Co3O4 nanoparticle clusters are uniformly dispersed and anchored to CNT networks in which Co3O4 guarantees high electrochemical reactivity towards sodium, and CNTs provide conductivity and stabilize the anode structure. We demonstrated that the Co3O4/CNT nanocomposite is capable of delivering a stable and high capacity of 403 mA h g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles where the sodium uptake/extract is confirmed in the way of reversible conversion reaction by adopting ex situ techniques. The rate capability of the composite is significantly improved and its reversible capacity is measured to be 212 mA h g(-1) at 1.6 A g(-1) and 190 mA h g(-1) at 3.2 A g(-1), respectively. Due to the simple synthesis technique with high electrochemical performance, Co3O4/CNT nanocomposites have great potential as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.