Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

Development of enhanced antibody response toward dual delivery of nano-adjuvant adsorbed human Enterovirus-71 vaccine encapsulated carrier.

PMID 26186664


This study introduces a new approach for enhancing immunity toward mucosal vaccines. HEV71 killed vaccine that is formulated with nanosize calcium phosphate adjuvant and encapsulated onto chitosan and alginate delivery carriers was examined for eliciting antibody responses in serum and saliva collected at weeks 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 for viral-specific IgA & IgG levels and viral neutralizing antibody titers. The antibody responses induced in rabbits by the different formulations delivered by a single (buccal) route were compared to those of dual immunization (intradermal / mucosal) and un-immunized control. Chitosan-loaded vaccine adjuvant induced elevated IgA antibody, while Alginate-adjuvant irreversible bonding sequestered the vaccine and markedly reduced immunogenicity. The induced mucosal and parenteral antibody profiles appeared in an inverse manner of enhanced mucosal IgA antibody accompanied by lower systemic IgG following a single oral immunization route. The combined intradermal and oral dual-immunized group developed an elevated salivary IgA, systemic IgG, and virus neutralizing response. A reduced salivary neutralizing antibody titer was observed and attributed to the continual secretion exchanges in saliva. Designing a successful mucosal delivery formulation needs to take into account the vaccine delivery site, dosage, adjuvant and carrier particle size, charge, and the reversibility of component interactions. The dual immunization seems superior and is a important approach for modulating the antibody response and boosting mucosal protection against HEV71 and similar pathogens based on their transmission mode, tissue tropism and shedding sites. Finally, the study has highlighted the significant role of dual immunization for simultaneous inducing and modulating the systemic and mucosal immune responses to EV71.