Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering

Stability and removal of spironolactone from wastewater.

PMID 26191987


Stability and removal of spironolactone (SP) from wastewater produced at Al-Quds University Campus were investigated. Kinetic studies on both pure water and wastewater coming from secondary treatment (activated sludge) demonstrated that the potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill), spironolactone, underwent degradation to its hydrolytic derivative, canrenone, in both media. The first-order hydrolysis rate of SP in activated sludge at 25°C (3.80 × 10(-5) s(-1)) was about 49-fold larger than in pure water (7.4 × 10(-7) s(-1)). The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) installed in the University Campus was assessed showing that more than 90% of spiked SP was removed together with its newly identified metabolites. In order to look for a technology to supplement or replace ultra-filtration membranes, the effectiveness of adsorption and filtration by micelle-clay filters for removing SP was tested in comparison with activated charcoal. Batch adsorption in aqueous suspensions was well described by Langmuir isotherms, showing a better removal by the micelle-clay material. Filtration of SP water solutions by columns filled with a mixture of sand and a micelle-clay complex showed complete removal of the drug at concentrations higher than in sand/activated-charcoal filled filters.