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Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA

Cytotoxicity of thiazolidinedione-, oxazolidinedione- and pyrrolidinedione-ring containing compounds in HepG2 cells.


PMID 26193171

Abstract

Liver damage occurred in some patients who took troglitazone (TGZ) for type II diabetes. The 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring in TGZ's structure has been implicated in its hepatotoxicity. To further examine the potential role of a TZD ring in toxicity we used HepG2 cells to evaluate two series of compounds containing different cyclic imides. N-phenyl analogues comprised 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT); 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DCPO) and N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide (NDPS). Benzylic compounds, which closely resemble TGZ, included 5-(3,5-dichlorophenylmethyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPMT); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MPMT); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethylene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MPMT-I); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)-2,4-oxazolidinedione (MPMO); 3-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)succinimide (MPMS) and 3-(4-methoxyphenylmethylene)succinimide (MPMS-I). Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTS assay after incubating the compounds (0-250μM) with HepG2 cells for 24h. Only certain TZD derivatives (TGZ, DCPT, DCPMT and MPMT-I) markedly decreased cell viability, whereas MPMT had low toxicity. In contrast, analogues without a TZD ring (DCPO, NDPS, MPMO, MPMS and MPMS-I) were not cytotoxic. These findings suggest that a TZD ring may be an important determinant of toxicity, although different structural features, chemical stability, cellular uptake or metabolism, etc., may also be involved. A simple clustering approach, using chemical fingerprints, assigned each compound to one of three classes (each containing one active compound and close homologues), and provided a framework for rationalizing the activity in terms of structure.