Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Ocotillol, a Majonoside R2 Metabolite, Ameliorates 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in Mice by Restoring the Balance of Th17/Treg Cells.

PMID 26194345


In a preliminary experiment, majonoside R2 (MR2), isolated from Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv.), inhibited differentiation to Th17 cells and was metabolized to ocotillol via pseudoginsenoside RT4 (PRT4) by gut microbiota. Therefore, we examined the inhibitory effects of MR2 and its metabolites PRT4 and ocotillol against Th17 cell differentiation. These ginsenosides significantly suppressed interleukin (IL)-6/tumor growth factor beta-induced differentiation of splenic CD4(+) T cells into Th17 cells and expression of IL-17 in vitro. Among these ginsenosides, ocotillol showed the highest inhibitory effect. We also examined the anti-inflammatory effect of ocotillol in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of ocotillol significantly suppressed TNBS-induced colon shortening, macroscopic score, myeloperoxidase activity, and production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Ocotillol treatment increased TNBS-suppressed expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 in the colon. Treatment with ocotillol inhibited TNBS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β, as well as activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. Moreover, treatment with ocotillol inhibited TNBS- induced differentiation to Th17 cells in the lamina propria of colon, as well as expression of T-bet, RORγt, IL-17, and IL-23. Ocotillol treatment also increased Treg cell differentiation and Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. These findings suggest that orally administered MR2 may be metabolized to ocotillol in the intestine by gut microbiota and the transformed ocotillol may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis by restoring the balance of Th17/Treg cells.