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Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology

Enhanced Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Beta Cell Function by Low Dose Aspirin in Hyperglycemic Insulin-Resistant Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) Rats.


PMID 26202354

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder, characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic islet beta-cell failure. The most common complications associated with type 2 diabetes are hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, increased inflammatory and reduced insulin response. Aspirin (ASA) and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with the prevention of diabetes, obesity and related cardiovascular disorders. Aspirin has been used in many clinical and experimental trials for the prevention of diabetes and associated complications. In this study, five month old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, which showed signs of mild hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose 80-95 mg/dl vs 55-60 mg/dl Wistar control rats) were used. Two subgroups of GK and Wistar control rats were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg aspirin/kg body weight/ day for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were collected after performing glucose tolerance (2 h post 2g IP glucose ingestion) tests in experimental and control groups. Aspirin caused a moderate decrease in hyperglycemia. However, we observed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance after ASA treatment in GK rats compared to the nondiabetic Wistar rats. Also, the ASA treated GK rats exhibited a significant decrease in insulinemia. ASA treatment also caused a marked reduction in the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin, PGE2, which was significantly higher in GK rats. On the other hand, no significant organ toxicity was observed after ASA treatment at this dose and time period. However, the total cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were significantly increased in GK rats, which decreased after ASA treatment. Immunofluorescence staining for insulin/glucagon secreting pancreatic cells showed improved beta-cell structural and functional integrity in ASA-treated rats which was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The improved glucose tolerance in ASA-treated GK rats may be associated with increased insulin responses due to the anti-inflammatory properties of ASA and enhanced nitric oxide (NO) level which facilitated insulin signaling and energy utilization in target tissues. These results may have implications in determining the therapeutic use of ASA in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes.