BMC microbiology

DNA-Microarray-based Genotyping of Clostridium difficile.

PMID 26242247


Clostridium difficile can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a possibility of outbreaks in hospital settings warrants molecular typing. A microarray was designed that included toxin genes (tcdA/B, cdtA/B), genes related to antimicrobial resistance, the slpA gene and additional variable genes. DNA of six reference strains and 234 clinical isolates from South-Western and Eastern Germany was subjected to linear amplification and labeling with dUTP-linked biotin. Amplicons were hybridized to microarrays providing information on the presence of target genes and on their alleles. Tested isolates were assigned to 37 distinct profiles that clustered mainly according to MLST-defined clades. Three additional profiles were predicted from published genome sequences, although they were not found experimentally. The microarray based assay allows rapid and high-throughput genotyping of clinical C. difficile isolates including toxin gene detection and strain assignment. Overall hybridization profiles correlated with MLST-derived clades.