British journal of pharmacology

Different downstream signalling of CCK1 receptors regulates distinct functions of CCK in pancreatic beta cells.

PMID 26248680


Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by intestinal I cells and regulates important metabolic functions. In pancreatic islets, CCK controls beta cell functions primarily through CCK1 receptors, but the signalling pathways downstream of these receptors in pancreatic beta cells are not well defined. Apoptosis in pancreatic beta cell apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst-33342 staining, TUNEL assays and Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. Insulin secretion and second messenger production were monitored using ELISAs. Protein and phospho-protein levels were determined by Western blotting. A glucose tolerance test was carried out to examine the functions of CCK-8s in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The sulfated carboxy-terminal octapeptide CCK26-33 amide (CCK-8s) activated CCK1 receptors and induced accumulation of both IP3 and cAMP. Whereas Gq -PLC-IP3 signalling was required for the CCK-8s-induced insulin secretion under low-glucose conditions, Gs -PKA/Epac signalling contributed more strongly to the CCK-8s-mediated insulin secretion in high-glucose conditions. CCK-8s also promoted formation of the CCK1 receptor/β-arrestin-1 complex in pancreatic beta cells. Using β-arrestin-1 knockout mice, we demonstrated that β-arrestin-1 is a key mediator of both CCK-8s-mediated insulin secretion and of its the protective effect against apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of β-arrestin-1 occurred through cytoplasmic late-phase ERK activation, which activates the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-phospho-Bcl-2-family protein pathway. Knowledge of different CCK1 receptor-activated downstream signalling pathways in the regulation of distinct functions of pancreatic beta cells could be used to identify biased CCK1 receptor ligands for the development of new anti-diabetic drugs.

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