Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A

4-Hydroxynonenal: A Superior Oxidative Biomarker Compared to Malondialdehyde and Carbonyl Content Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats.

PMID 26252470


Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a halogenated substance that generates free radical species during metabolism in vivo, induces hepatotoxicity, produces oxidative DNA damage, and increased levels of protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats received single or repeated ip injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and formation and persistence of carbonyls, MDA, and 4-HNE in plasma were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After a single injection of 500 mg/kg CCl4 the in vivo half-lives of MDA and carbonyl content were 1.5 d and 2 d, respectively, while that of 4-HNE was approximately 10 d. Treatment with CCl4 (50, 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased these oxidative biomarkers in blood. However, formation of protein carbonyls and MDA was less sensitive than 4-HNE to CCl4. Levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (hepatotoxicity markers) rose with CCl4 doses. After a single injection (500 mg/kg), the peak level of SGOT was observed after 8 h but SGPT after 24 h. Overall, 4-HNE was more dose-sensitive and showed greater formation subchronically than other biomarkers. Multiple ip treatments with 300 mg CCl4 /kg (d 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, and 21) demonstrated that 4-HNE formation was highest (18-fold, peak/control) and subchronic up to d 21 (last treatment day), unlike other biomarkers. Data suggest that 4-HNE, MDA, and carbonyl content may be useful oxidative biomarkers for exposure to free radical generating halogenated compounds. However, 4-HNE appears to be a more sensitive and sustainable biomarker for toxicological and risk assessments.