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Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN

Probucol Protects Against Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Induced Apoptosis in the Cultured Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.


PMID 26254912

Abstract

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is emerging as a key contributor to endothelial dysfunction. The drug probucol was reported to have an anti-lipid peroxidation effect and improve endothelial dilation function. But little is known about the protective effect of probucol on ADMA-induced human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) injury and its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of probucol on ADMA-induced HBMEC injury and its potential mechanisms. Results showed that probucol protected against ADMA-induced HBMEC injury in a dose-dependent manner; probucol pretreatment also significantly reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), downregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax and caspase-3 activity, as well as increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release and promoted anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and eNOS expression in the cultured HBMECs. Furthermore, we found that ADMA significantly increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, while probucol pretreatment effectively inhibited ADMA-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation in HBMECs. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that probucol protected against ADMA-induced HBMEC injury and suppressed oxidative stress through the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway, which was the potential underlying mechanism of HBMEC injury in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.