PloS one

Targeted intracellular delivery of resveratrol to glioblastoma cells using apolipoprotein E-containing reconstituted HDL as a nanovehicle.

PMID 26258481


The objective of this study is to transport and deliver resveratrol to intracellular sites using apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3). Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) bearing resveratrol (rHDL/res) was prepared using phospholipids and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-binding domain of apoE3. Biophysical characterization revealed that resveratrol was partitioned into the phospholipid bilayer of discoidal rHDL/res particles (~19 nm diameter). Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the LDLr-binding ability of apoE3 was retained. Cellular uptake of resveratrol to intracellular sites was evaluated in glioblastoma A-172 cells by direct fluorescence using chemically synthesized NBD-labeled resveratrol (res/NBD) embedded in rHDL/res. Competition and inhibition studies indicate that the uptake is by receptor mediated endocytosis via the LDLr, with co-localization of apoE3 and res/NBD in late endosomes/lysosomes. We propose that rHDL provides an ideal hydrophobic milieu to sequester resveratrol and that rHDL containing apoE3 serves as an effective "nanovehicle" to transport and deliver resveratrol to targeted intracellular sites.