American journal of translational research

Extracorporeal shock wave effectively attenuates brain infarct volume and improves neurological function in rat after acute ischemic stroke.

PMID 26279744


To investigate the effect of shock wave (SW) on brain-infarction volume (BIV) and neurological function in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by left internal carotid artery occlusion in rats. SD rats (n=48) were divided into group 1 [sham-control (SC)], group 2 [SC-ECSW (energy dosage of 0.15 mJ/mm(2)/300 impulses)], group 3 (AIS), and group 4 (AIS-ECSW) and sacrificed by day 28 after IS induction. In normal rats, caspase-3, Bax and TNF-α biomarkers did not differ between animals with and without ECSW therapy, whereas Hsp70 was activated post-ECSW treatment. By day 21 after AIS, Sensorimotor-functional test identified a higher frequency of turning movement to left in group 3 than that in group 4 (P<0.05). By day 28, brain MRI demonstrated lager BIV in group 3 than that in group 4 (P<0.001). Angiogenesis biomarkers at cellular (CD31, α-SMA+) and protein (eNOS) levels and number of neuN+ cells were higher in groups 1 and 2 than those in groups 3 and 4, and higher in group 4 than those in group 3, whereas VEGF and Hsp70 levels were progressively increased from groups 1 and 2 to group 4 (all P<0.001). Protein expressions of apoptosis (Bax, caspase 3, PARP), inflammation (MMP-9, TNF-α), oxidative stress (NOX-1, NOX-2, oxidized protein) and DNA-damage marker (γ-H2AX), and expressions of γ-H2AX+, GFAP+, AQP-4+ cells showed an opposite pattern compared to that of angiogenesis among the four groups (all P<0.001). ECSW therapy was safe and effective in reducing BIV and improved neurological function.