Molecular and cellular biology

The Set3 Complex Antagonizes the MYST Acetyltransferase Esa1 in the DNA Damage Response.

PMID 26303527


Acetylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification that contributes to chromatin-regulated processes, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, and gene expression. Acetylation is controlled by complexes containing opposing lysine and histone acetyltransferase (KAT and HAT) and deacetylase (KDAC and HDAC) activities. The essential MYST family Esa1 KAT acetylates core histones and many nonhistone substrates. Phenotypes of esa1 mutants include transcriptional silencing and activation defects, impaired growth at high temperatures, and sensitivity to DNA damage. The KDAC Rpd3 was previously identified as an activity opposing Esa1, as its deletion suppresses growth and silencing defects of esa1 mutants. However, loss of Rpd3 does not suppress esa1 DNA damage sensitivity. In this work, we identified Hos2 as a KDAC counteracting ESA1 in the damage response. Deletion of HOS2 resulted in changes of esa1's transcriptional response upon damage. Further, loss of HOS2 or components of the Set3 complex (Set3C) in which it acts specifically suppressed damage sensitivity and restored esa1 histone H4 acetylation. This rescue was mediated via loss of either Set3C integrity or of its binding to dimethylated histone H3K4. Our results thus add new insight into the interactions of an essential MYST acetyltransferase with diverse deacetylases to respond specifically to environmental and physiological challenges.