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Journal of pineal research

Combined melatonin and exendin-4 therapy preserves renal ultrastructural integrity after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the male rat.


PMID 26309060

Abstract

We tested whether combined melatonin (Mel) and exendin-4 (Ex4) treatment can better preserve glomerular structural integrity after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury compared with either alone. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 50) were equally divided into sham control (SC), IR, IR-Ex4 (10 μg/kg subcutaneously 30 min after reperfusion and daily for 5 days), IR-Mel (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally at 30 min postreperfusion and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hr), and IR-Ex4-Mel were euthanized at day 14. Serum creatinine level and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at days 3 and 14 were highest in IR group and lowest in SC, significantly higher in IR-Ex4 and IR-Mel groups than in IR-Ex4-Mel group (all P < 0.001) without significant difference between IR-Ex4 and IR-Mel groups. Changes in podocyte injury score (PIS) and kidney injury score were highest in IR group and lowest in SC, significantly higher in IR-Ex4 and IR-Mel groups than in IR-Ex4-Mel, and significantly higher in IR-Mel group than in IR-Ex4 group (all P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical microscopic findings of the expressions of FSP-1 and WT-1 (two glomerular damage indicators) and KIM-1 and snail (two renal tubular-damaged indicators) showed an identical pattern, whereas the expressions of ZO-1, p-cadherin, podocin, dystroglycan, fibronectin, and synaptopodin (six indices of glomerular integrity) demonstrated an opposite pattern compared to that of PIS among five groups (all P < 0.001). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/MMP-9) and oxidative stress (NOX-1, NOX-2, oxidized protein) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern to that of PIS among five groups (all P < 0.001). Combined melatonin-exednin-4 therapy further protected glomerulus from IR injury.